- Technical support from FUSION Electronics
Thiele/Small" commonly refers to a set of electromechanical parameters that define the specified low frequency performance of a loudspeaker driver. These parameters are published in specification sheets by driver manufacturers so that designers have a guide in selecting off-the-shelf drivers for loudspeaker designs. Many of the parameters are strictly defined only at the resonant frequency, but the approach is generally applicable in the frequency range where the diaphragm motion is largely pistonic, i.e. when the entire cone moves in and out as a unit without cone breakup.
Using these parameters, a loudspeaker designer may simulate the position, velocity and acceleration of the diaphragm, the input impedance and the sound output of a system comprising a loudspeaker and enclosure. Rather than purchase off-the-shelf components, loudspeaker design engineers often define desired performance and work backwards to a set of parameters and manufacture a driver with said characteristics or order it from a driver manufacturer. This process of generating parameters from a target response is known as synthesis. Thiele/Small parameters are named after A. Neville Thiele of the Australian Broadcasting Commission, and Richard H. Small of the University of Sydney, who pioneered this line of analysis for loudspeakers. These measurements are also used for designing enclosures for Subwoofers.
FUSION Electronics offers a limited one year warranty on all car audio products - ensuring all FUSION speakers, subwoofers, amplifiers, active enclosures, bass packs, head units or accessories are free from defects in material and workmanship, accirding to the following terms and conditions:
- The limited warranty for the FUSION product purchased extends to the first twelve (12) months beginning on the date of purchase of the product.
- The limited warranty extends only to the original consumer purchaser (consumer) of the product and is not assignable or transferable to any subsequent purchaser/end user.
- The limited warranty extends only to consumers who purchase the product in one of the countries (or areas) set forth on www. fusionelectronics.com. The limited warranty is only valid in FUSION’S intended country (or area) of sale of the product.
- During the limited warranty period, FUSION or its authorised service network will repair or replace, at FUSION or FUSION’S authorised dealer, any defective product or parts thereof with new and return the product to the consumer in working condition. No charge will be made to the consumer for either parts or labour in repairing or replacing the product. All replaced parts and cosmetic parts should be free of defects at the time of shipment and, therefore shall not be covered under these limited warranty terms.
- Repaired product will be warranted for the balance of the original warranty period or for ninety (90) days from the date of repair, whichever is longer.
- All warranty claims must be accompanied with a copy of this warranty card, and a copy of proof of purchase date.
The consumer shall have no coverage or benefits under this limited warranty if any of the following conditions are applicable:
- The product has been subject to: abnormal use, abnormal conditions, improper storage, exposure to excessive moisture or dampness, exposure to excessive temperature or other such environmental conditions, unauthorised modifications, unauthorised connections, unauthorised repair including but not limited to use of unauthorised spare parts in repairs, misuse, neglect, abuse, accident, alteration, improper installation, acts of God, spill of foods or liquids, maladjustment of customer controls or other acts which are beyond the reasonable control of FUSION, including deficiencies in consumable parts such as fuses, and breakage or damage to antennae unless caused directly by defects in materials or workmanship, and normal wear and tear of the product.
- FUSION was not notified by the consumer of the alleged defect or malfunction of the product during the applicable limited warranty period.
- The product serial number or the accessory date code has been removed, defaced or altered.
- The product was used with or connected to an accessory not supplied by FUSION or fit for use with FUSION product, or used in a manner other than its intended use.
If a problem develops during the limited warranty period, the consumer should take the following step-by-step procedure:
1.The consumer shall return the product to the place of purchase for repair or replacement processing.
2.The consumer shall also be charged for any parts or labour charges not covered by this limited warranty. The consumer shall be responsible for expenses related to
reinstallation of the product.
3.If the product is returned to FUSION after the expiration of the warranty period, FUSION’s normal service policies shall apply and the consumer will be charged accordingly.
THE BENEFITS CONFERRED BY THIS LIMITED WARRANTY APPLY TO THE EXTENT THAT THEY ARE NOT SUPERCEDED BY ANY OTHER RIGHTS AND REMEDIES UNDER ANY APPLICABLE LEGISLATION THAT CANNOT BE EXCLUDED. OTHERWISE, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY IS EXCLUDED AND THE FOREGOING WARRANTY IS THE PURCHASER’S SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDY AND IS IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW, FUSION SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR A LOSS OF ANTICIPATED BENEFITS OR PROFITS, OUT OF USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PRODUCT.
- Some states in America do not allow the exclusion or limitation of consequential damages, so the above limitation and exclusion may not apply to you. This warranty gives you specific legal rights which may vary from state to state.
- FUSION neither assumes nor authorises any authorised service centre or any person or entity to assume for it any other obligation or liability beyond that which is expressly provided for in this warranty.
- All warranty information, product features and specifications are subject to change without notice.
The main difference between single voice coil subs and dual voice coil subs is the ability to configure the wiring on DVC subs to present a variety of different loads to your amplifier which in turn can deliver more power. This is an advantage when using D class or lower impedance amplifiers
Single Voice Coil
A single voice coil (SVC) sub has one coil which utilizes a length of insulated copper wire wound onto a circular former with one positive (+) and one negative (- ) terminal. Most M
Most SVC subwoofers have a 4Ohm Impedance.
Dual Voice Coil
A dual voice coil (DVC) sub has two separate coils of insulated copper wire wound on top of each other on the former and has two positive (+) and two negative (- ) terminals, one pair for each coil.
Dual 2 Ohm coils are the most popular for presenting a 1 Ohm load to a D Class amplifier.
The first thing to do is check that your amplifier is not in protection. If it is, this could be a sign that you have a problem with your sub or amp. The easiest way to check if your sub is causing your amp to go into Protection is to disconnect the sub and power up the amp. If it does not go into protection with it disconnected your sub is the problem. Check for a burnt smell, then try and move the cone gently by pressing down In the centre to see if it has seized or Is rubbing. It should move freely if the coil is not damaged. If when you disconnect the sub the amp still goes into protection there is every reason to suspect your amp may have an internal fault. Unfortunately this does not mean your sub is guaranteed to be fault free as the amp May have suffered as a result of the sub failing or visa versa so at this point we would Recommend that you return either one or both of the units to your place of purchase for inspection by the authorised dealer under the warranty Provision of the product (if applicable).
The main cause of subwoofer failure is overdriving or driving a clipped or distorted signal continuously to your sub. This can result in a mechanical or electrical
failure. With electrical failure the result is normally a burnt voice coil causing the sub to go open circuit or in some cases short circuit to ground.
It is important to match the “RMS” ratings of your sub to your amplifier to avoid overdriving. Clipping or distortion is the audible sign of an unclean signal and this can originate from any piece of equipment in the signal chain. What this means is you may be only driving your amplifier at say half power yet your head unit/source may be driving at close to it’s maximum output which could be supplying a clipped or distorted signal to the amp thus creating the audible distortion you hear.
Mechanical failure is when the spider or butyl surround rips or tears or sometimes the voice coil jumps the gap. What we mean by jumps the gap is that when the sub is being mechanically overdriven it can result in over excursion or over travel. This result is the voice coil leaves the gap that it travels in and results in failure.
Mechanical failures in general are all symptoms of over excursion which can be caused by having the wrong size enclosure and or overdriving. It is very important to follow the recommended enclosure volumes to ensure the optimum performance of your sub and to protect it from these types of failures. Another important fact is the port length and diameter in relation to the tuning of the enclosure as this also could adversely affect performance and reliability.
A 2- way speaker, also known as a Co-Axial speaker, has a seperate tweeter mounted on a pole assembly in the centre of the speaker. The tweeter has a built in crossover which seperates the high frequencies and gives more clarity and definition to your music.
A 3-way speaker or Tri-axial speaker has an additional midrange speaker mounted alongside the tweeter on the pole assembly. A crossover filters the correct frequencies to the appropriate speaker providing increased clarity and a wider frequency response.
An example of a 2-way speaker 3-way speaker
Dual - Cone
A dual cone speaker is classed as a full range speaker but instead of using a seperate tweeter it has a small cone in the centre directly connected to the voice coil that reproduces the high range frequencies due to it’s specific design. While inexpensive compared to a separate tweeter it is not as efficient.
This refers to a speaker that generally ranges in size from 3—1/2” to 6—3/4”that
reproduces the midrange frequencies. Generally they would be used in a system that has separate speakers for low,mid and high range that are driven individually.
The high range frequencies are reproduced by the tweeter. In two and three way speakers the tweeter is mounted in the centre of the mid cone on a pole piece and in components it is a separate unit.
Components or Separates
Component systems produce better definition and detail, as well as giving you the ability to optimize imaging and soundstage reproduction. This is partly due to the vastly superior cross over system used in most component systems and the ability to place tweeters in the best position to enhance imaging.
This refers to the individual vocal and instrumental “images” that are reproduced to create your stereo systems soundstage. The better the soundstage reproduction the greater the perception of width and depth.
Imaging is the ability of your stereo system to reproduce the location of individual instruments and vocalists accurately as they were positioned during the original recording. Tweeter placement is important and ideally there should be equal and unobstructed path lengths between your tweeters and your ears,this will create a soundstage that is lifelike.
A voice coil is a length of insulated copper or aluminium wire wound onto a circular former that provides the motive force to the cone by reacting with the magnet when the current is passed through it.
Surrounds can be manufactured from a variety of materials. The most common in car audio is butyl rubber as it tends to last longer. Some manufacturers use foam or cloth. The surround allows the cone to travel in and out without restricting the length of travel.
Maximum / Peak Power
The Max/Peak power rating of a speaker is the amount of power that the speaker can handle in short bursts or peaks without causing permanent damage to the voice coil. If this rating is exceeded constantly you will risk burning the voice coil
What is a Crossover
Crossovers are essentially filters that separate or block frequencies and route them to the correct speaker. There are two common types of crossover,”passive” and “active”.
Passive crossovers are non-powered and are most commonly used with component systems in-line with the speaker wires located between the amplifier or head/source unit and speakers. They are also used in fullrange speakers. Both two and three way speakers have passive crossovers to separate or block the frequencies for the mid and/or tweeters to ensure the appropriate frequencies are delivered to the respective driver.
Active crossovers are electronically powered units that are placed in-line with the RCA signal lead between the head unit/source and the amplifier.
They will provide better signal separation and unlike passive crossover there is no power loss.
There are three main types of crossover filters. High-pass filter, low-pass filter, and a subsonic-filter.
A high pass crossover allows high frequency signals in the 5kHz-20kHz range (generally) to be passed to the speaker/tweeter and the lower frequency signal is blocked.
A low-pass crossover allows the low frequency signal in the 50Hz-250Hz range (generally) to be passed to the speaker/sub and the higher frequencies are blocked.
A subsonic filter is essentially a high-pass crossover which blocks the frequency signal generally from 10Hz-40Hz this signal often contains no music and its removal will improve woofer control and sound quality.
Some Mono block (single channel) amplifiers have 4 speaker output terminals as shown below. These are internally linked Positive together and Negative together, this is to make connection to multi coil Subwoofers easier when you configure in parallel. You can connect each coil directly to the terminals (one per side) rather than at the subwoofer.
This happens as a result of your amplifier trying to draw as much current (amps ) as it can to produce large/loud bass notes, low frequency notes are the biggest culprit. In some cases the Alternator is unable to supply enough to the amp and other devices. As a result of this other devices may not function correctly like headlight etc. You need to ensure that your alternator is providing the correct Amperage or it may need replacing or reconditioning. Apply a load test to your battery to ensure it is in good working condition. Do not assume that adding a capacitor or a second battery will solve the problem because if the alternator is not providing enough Amperage it will only solve it temporarily. Investigate a higher output alternator.
The Inline fuse should be fitted as close to the battery as possible and the rating (amperage) the same or higher than the total on board fusing of your Amplifier. This fuse is to protect the power cable from grounding and potentially starting a fire.
This could be happening if you have selected 4 channel on the Input selection switch but have only 2 channels connected. The input selector must be set to the correct position. If 2 channel is selected (with 2 channels connected) the output is supplied to all 4 output channels and if 4 channels are connected but 2 channels are selected you will only get 2 output channels. For more information contact us at Tech Email
My speakers are 300 watts “MAX” and 90 watts “Rated Power” what size amp
do I need to drive them to achieve the best performance.
. When you are choosing an amplifier to drive speakers or a Subwoofer you should
use the “RMS” per channel ratings(Amplifier) and the “Rated Power”
(Speaker/Subwoofer) as the reference for your choice. Always define which
ratings you are comparing and try and get them as close as you can.
“Max/Peak” Power Rating
The “MAX/PEAK” power rating of a speaker is the amount of power
that the speaker can handle in short bursts or peaks without causing
permanent damage to the voice coil.If this rating is exceeded constantly
you will risk burning the voice coil.
“Rated Power” Power Rating
The “Rated Power” rating of the speaker is generally considered to be the
nominal constant power that the speaker will handle continuously
without causing damage.
Therefore if your speakers are rated at 90 watts (Rated Power) you should drive
them with an amplifier that is capable of supplying 90 watts RMS per
Channel or as close to that as possible. That is not to say that an amp
capable of a higher output cannot be used if the amplifier settings are
managed responsibly realising the potential to overdrive your speakers
exists. This rule also applies to using an amplifier that is under driving
your speakers. Constantly driving a distorted signal from an overdriven
Source to your speakers can cause damage to the voice coils
Bridge mode is commonly used to get more output power from amplifiers by combining two single channels output into one output. This can only be done safely if you know the minimum load (Ohms) permissible when bridged. This is more common when driving Subwoofers that have Dual voice coils or when you have multiple Subwoofers. First check the installation manual or look at the speaker terminal block on the amplifier as they normally have a diagram showing the bridged connections.
This is an example of a 4 channel amp speaker connection terminal block. As shown bridging is achieved by connecting the positive terminal from the left channel and the negative terminal of the right channel to the corresponding terminals on the subwoofer coil or coils depending on configuration. There are a number of different configurations depending on the load applied to the amplifier. See Subwoofer coil configuration. It all depends on whether you have a 4 Ohm, 2 Ohm or 1 Ohm stable amplifier (mono). An example of the different power ratings for a four channel amplifier are as follows.
100 Watts RMS x 4 @ 4 Ohms
200 Watts RMS x 2 Bridged @ 2 Ohms
These are examples only to give you an idea how this works. This also applies for 2 channel amplifiers and depends on whether they class AB or D class amps as the 1 Ohm rating applies to D class amps in general.
The first thing to do is check that your amplifier is not in protection. If it is, this could be a sign that you have a problem with your sub or amp. The easiest way to check if your sub is causing your amp to go into Protection is to disconnect the sub and power up the amp. If it does not go into protection with it disconnected your sub is the problem. Check for a burnt smell, or try and move the cone gently by pressing down In the centre to see if it has seized or Is rubbing. It should move freely if the coil is not damaged. If when you disconnect the sub the amp still goes into protection there is every reason to suspect your amp may have an internal fault. Unfortunately this does not mean your sub is guaranteed to be fault free as the amp May have suffered as a result of the sub failing or visa versa so at this point we would Recommend that you return either one or both of the units to your place of purchase for inspection by the authorised dealer under the warranty Provision of the product (if applicable)